Introduction by Brazilian travellers returning from the Pacific islands also cannot be excluded. Causative agent of infection and clinical manifestations of disease Zika is a single-stranded, positive sense RNA virus [ 8 ], a member of the Flaviviridae family that notably also includes dengue, yellow fever and Japanese encephalitis viruses, each of which is the cause of a significant re-emerging infectious disease in humans. essay writing software harvard college In addition to the spread of Zika via mosquito bite, the current news media is awash with stories regarding the possibilities of sexual, blood-borne and vertical transmission of ZIKV. Isolations and serological specificity. This would pose a serious threat for the global spread of ZIKV and thus constitutes a major public health problem.
Published online Apr The question arises as to what advice is appropriate to give in more economically developed countries distant to the current epidemic and in which Zika has not yet been reported. No vaccine has been developed yet and even though this has been prioritised by multiple funding agencies, it may take several years to become commercially available. custom essays toronto foam cushions By early March , travel-associated and locally acquired Zika cases had been reported in the USA and in its territories [ 31 ].
Yasuno M, Tonn RJ. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. customized term paper king lear Genetic and serologic properties of Zika virus associated with an epidemic, Yap State, Micronesia, A subsequent outbreak occurred in and in French Polynesia, which was associated with 42 cases of GBS [ 21 ]. Given the magnitude of the current explosive spread of Zika [ 1 , 2 ], public and private key stakeholders, funding agencies and public health experts worldwide should consider what issues need to be prioritised for research in order to produce effective approaches to combat ZIKV.
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Increased globalisation continues to pose a risk for disease spread. The real possibility of ZIKV transmission through blood transfusion should not be ignored [ 44 ]. In fact, around four in five adults may be infected without showing any clinical signs, in which instance they may act as asymptomatic carriers of infection for a period of several days after being bitten by an infectious mosquito [ 16 ]. Nonetheless, nations that are endemic for dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya are potentially at risk for Zika. Full-length sequencing and genomic characterization of Bagaza, Kedougou, and Zika viruses.
Clinically, apart from the profound effects on the unborn child apparently attributable to congenital infection, Zika infection in humans is relatively benign. Since a vaccine or anti-viral therapy is not yet available, current means of disease prevention involve protection from mosquito bites, excluding pregnant females from travelling to Zika-endemic territories, and practicing safe sex in those countries. However, some strains within the same species may not be able to transfer ZIKV [ 26 , 27 ]. ZIKV may spread to countries adjoining those now heavily affected and small scale, easily controlled, outbreaks may occur through travel in industrialised nations. Based on phylogenetic analysis, the earliest date of the emergence of ZIKV is considered to be with a confidence range of — [ 17 ].
However, some strains within the same species may not be able to transfer ZIKV [ 26 , 27 ]. It is suspected that around the virus transferred from Africa to South East Asia, where it became geographically widespread by the s [ 19 ]. RT JaneFriedman 3 important privacy issues if you're writing memoir or personal essay:
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Atlanta braves argumentative essay allyson hobbs dissertation defense argumentative essay about smoking in public financial reporting research paper essay flood in my village? The presence of Aedes mosquitoes across Latin America coupled with a suitable climate for their population growth, combined with an ever increasing movement of people globally, appears to have triggered the current remarkable rise in Zika cases. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz.
Contributor Information Narayan Gyawali, Email: Culicidae to transmit Zika virus. Am J Trop Med Hyg. essay writing software natural disasters Zika virus disease in the United States, —
RT JaneFriedman 3 important privacy issues if you're writing memoir or personal essay: College research paper zika virus pdf by Sep 16, Uncategorized 0 comments. ZIKV may spread to countries adjoining those now heavily affected and small scale, easily controlled, outbreaks may occur through travel in industrialised nations. customized paper xbox 360 console Mosquitoes and their control. Int J Infect Dis.
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Yasuno M, Tonn RJ. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. Global spread and risk to mosquito non-endemic regions The risk of local transmission of ZIKV and the threat of outbreaks is equal for all the countries where mosquitoes susceptible to or competent for ZIKV are found.
Despite understandable concern among the general public that has been fuelled by the media, in regions where Zika is not present, such as North America, Europe and Australia, at this time any outbreak initiated by an infected traveler returning from an endemic area would very probably be contained locally. Discussion Prior to its emergence in Latin America in —, Zika was known to exist at a relatively low prevalence in parts of Africa, Asia and the Pacific islands. This collective knowledge gap demands urgent action to characterise better both the virus and the pathologies it causes, especially those related to infection during pregnancy, which represents a serious public health challenge.
All authors have reviewed and approved the final manuscript. The strain of ZIKV in Latin America is thought to have originated from the Pacific islands, quite possibly brought into Brazil by one or more infected persons associated with a mass gathering such as a carnival or sporting event [ 1 ]. Isolations and serological specificity.